MethodologyThe research strategy for the CRC 2/mid-CRC comprised of the following modular steps:
1. Preparatory activities
a . An information-sharing exercise presentation was carried out by PAC with ACTED and its other project partners to convey the relevance of this exercise which would be carried out at three different points of the project. During this exercise the 10 programmes to be assessed were finalised along with the seven districts that would be covered in the project.
b. The programmes included.
- JSSK – Janani Shishu Suraksha Yojana (mother and child)
- IAY – Indira Awas Yojana (housing)
- ICDS – Integrated Child Development Scheme
- MGNREGS – Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme
- MDM – Mid Day Meal Scheme
- NBA – Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (sanitation)
- NSAP – National Social Pension
- PDS – Public Distribution System
- RGGVY –Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikana Yojana (rural electrification)
- RKVY – Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (agricultural development)
c. The seven districts included
d. Secondary data that included details regarding each of the above programmes and the districts was collected. Simultaneously, ACTED also met with state and district-level officials to collect data from the offices regarding number of beneficiaries for each of the programmes.
e. A brief but comprehensive literature review was carried out to understand the relevance of each of the programmes vis-à-vis the fundamental rights and entitlements to citizens as enshrined in the Indian Constitution.
2. Questionnaire Design
- On the basis of the information collected through secondary data, draft questionnaires were prepared and then piloted in the field to check on content, flow and language. Changes were then made to the questionnaires accordingly.
- To address each programme, 10 questionnaires were prepared to collect data from beneficiaries. In the absence of lists of beneficiaries, listing questionnaires were also prepared to identify beneficiaries.
The scope of the data collection instruments covered the following:
- Availability of the service
- Access and usage of the service
- Service quality and reliability
- Problem incidence, responsiveness and problem resolution
- Costs, including Corruption
- Suggestions for improvement
3. Sampling design
The sampling design followed comprised of the following steps:
- A total of 200 villages instead of GP were covered in the 7 project districts
- Equal distribution of villages across districts i.e. 28 villages each from each districts were taken (30 each from Goalpara and Cachar to reach target of 200 villages)
- Again, from each district two blocks were considered (i.e. 14 villages per block)
- Of these one block comprised of the HQ block or most near to HQ block, and another one a farther block (also having good population to get required number of beneficiaries)
- Therefore, total of 14 blocks were covered with a target of 175 beneficiaries per block (i.e. per 14 villages) i.e. 350 per district
- 50 to 100 households were covered per village in HH survey (Total Household or 100 household per village, whichever is lower)
- Approximately 13 beneficiaries per village were interviewed
The final sample size was as follows
4. Field Work and Quality Assurance
ACTED’s primary grantee partner NEICORD carried out the CRC survey in the selected villages. A two-level training programme was carried out (at Guwahati and in each of the selected districts) to ensure that the interviewers could collect the data correctly. During the course of field work, PAC research team along with ACTED, consistently monitored the field work through field visits and carried out spot checks and back checks and onsite scrutiny of filled in questionnaires. The NEICORD District Coordinators also kept in contact with the PAC team for updates on a daily basis. Another round of random scrutiny was carried out once the questionnaires were received at PAC before data entry.
5. Data Entry and Analysis
Data entry for all the listing questionnaires and the beneficiary questionnaires was carried out in Bangalore under the direct supervision of the PAC study team. The reliability of estimate presented in this report is significant at 95% confidence level. The margin of error is +/-2.7%.
6. Presentation of Findings
The findings from the study were presented at the partner’s meet on 2nd December at Guwahtai which was followed by discussions of the topline results, where the district co-coordinators could identify the reasons for most of the findings.